Responding to urgent pleas from the Arab League and Libya's citizens, the UN Security Council has approved a significant resolution -- the second in less than three weeks -- to address the outrageous violence being perpetrated by Colonel Qadhafi on the Libyan people.
Resolution 1973 provides legal authority for the international community to use force to protect civilians.
To halt the violence, the Security Council:
1) Authorizes states to take all necessary measures to protect civilians
· States may use force to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack. To exercise this authority, states can act nationally or through regional organizations.
· The League of Arab States is requested to cooperate.
2) Imposes a no-fly zone
· All flights are banned in Libyan airspace, except those for certain purposes like humanitarian aid delivery or evacuating foreign nationals.
· States may use force to enforce this ban. States are required to notify the UN Secretary-General of actions taken to enforce the ban.
· Other states are called upon to provide assistance, including over-flight approvals, for the states implementing the no-fly zone.
3) Authorizes states to take all necessary measures to enforce the arms embargo
· States are called upon to inspect cargo of aircraft and vessels suspected of transporting arms or mercenaries in violation of the UN arms embargo.
· If permission to inspect cargo is denied, then states may use force to carry out such inspections.
· The Security Council's Libya Sanctions Committee may impose targeted sanctions (asset freezes/travel bans) on individuals and companies who violate the arms embargo.
4) Provides for freezing assets of the Libyan authorities
· The Security Council directs its Libya Sanctions Committee to identify within thirty days state companies to be subject to an asset freeze.
· In an Annex, the Security Council designates several major state-owned entities -- including the Libyan Central Bank, Libya's sovereign wealth fund and the Libyan National Oil Corporation -- that are immediately subject to an asset freeze.
· States must require their nationals to exercise vigilance when doing business with Libyan companies to make sure such business does not contribute to violence against civilians.
5) Imposes other aviation restrictions
· States must deny permission to take off from, land or overfly their territory to any Libyan aircraft.
· States must also deny permission to take off from, land or overfly their territory to any aircraft suspected of transporting arms or mercenaries in violation of the arms embargo.
6) Imposes targeted sanctions on more regime figures
· In an annex, five state-owned companies and seven individuals are identified to be subject to an asset freeze, including two of Qadhafi's sons, his Director of Military Intelligence and the Defense Minister.
· Two additional individuals -- a Libyan ambassador and a colonel who are both involved in recruiting mercenaries -- are identified to be subject to an international travel ban.
7) Establishes a UN Panel of Experts (POE) to improve sanctions implementation.
· The UN Secretary-General will appoint eight experts to monitor to improve enforcement of the UN sanctions contained in Resolution 1970 and this resolution.
· This expert panel will also recommend ways to tighten enforcement of these sanctions.
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